Supplementary Studies

The NRCRES has engaged in a number of smaller studies that both supplement the larger projects and help to answer further questions about education in rural areas.

The Rural Special Education Administrators Survey

PI: Thomas Farmer

Co-PI: Kimberly Dadisman

The Rural Special Education Administrators Survey was conducted in 2009 to seek answers to questions regarding the current status of special education in rural areas of the United States. District special education administrators in 373 rural school districts across the country were interviewed. Questions were asked regarding challenges faced in providing services to students, teacher recruitment and retention, parental involvement, and the use of partnerships with other agencies such as Educational Service Agencies in providing services.

 

The Rural Special Education Teachers Survey

PI: Thomas Farmer

Co-PI: Kimberly Dadisman

The Rural Special Education Teachers Survey was conducted in 2009 with 202 special education teachers who teach in rural areas of the United States, in order to explore the challenges and decisions that they face in their career. Topics discussed included work responsibilities, professional supports, future plans, overall strengths and challenges of working in rural areas, and professional development.

 

The Rural Teacher Retention and Recruitment Survey

PI: Thomas Farmer

Co-PI: Matthew Irvin

 

The Rural Definitions Study

PI: Thomas Farmer

This study was a subcontract in which the NRCRES assisted the SWREL in identifying implications of the US Department of Education definition of what constitutes a rural area.

 

The AYP in REAP Schools Study

PI: Thomas Farmer

Adequate yearly progress (AYP) on No Child Left Behind criteria was examined for a randomly selected sample of districts that qualify for the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP). The sample involved 10% of districts that were eligible for the Small Rural Schools Achievement (SRSA) program and 10% that were eligible for the Rural and Low-income Schools (RLIS) program. Based on district reports, nearly 80% of SRSA schools made AYP, 11% failed, and 11% did not have adequate data. For schools in the RLIS program, districts reported that 65% made AYP, 29% failed, and 6% did not report adequate data. The SRSA and RLIS samples had different patterns for the categories of students that did not make AYP. Also, SRSA and RLIS districts were differentially distributed across the United States. Implications for interventions are discussed.

Affiliated Projects

Title: Social and Character Development in Rural Children: The Competence Support Program
PI: Mark Fraser
CO-PI: Kimberly Dadisman
Agency: Institute for Education Sciences, US Department of Education
Type: Multi-site cooperative Period: 09-2003 to 08-2007

This project involved a randomized control trial to evaluate a multi-component school-wide program to promote positive social behavior and character development in students during the elementary school years. This project was conducted in two rural multi-ethnic counties and involved intensive inservice training and consultation for teachers and related services personnel.

Title: Project BEST (Behavioral and Emotional Support Training): A Multi-level Model to Prevent and Treat Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Early Adolescence
PI: Thomas W. Farmer
Agency: Office of Special Education Programs, US Department of Education
Type: Field Initiated Period: 12-01-2002 to 11-30-2007

This project involved the evaluation of a model program for training teachers and related services personnel in a systematic intervention to prevent and treat disruptive behavior disorders in youth during the transition to middle school. Comprehensive inservice training and direct consultation was provided to teams of teachers and related services professionals in five middle schools with the goal of promoting coordinated interventions to enhance the academic, behavioral, and social adjustment of students during the middle school years. The project involved tracking the adaptation (academic, behavioral, social) of two cohorts of students (approximately 500 students per cohort) from 5th grade through 8th grade (J. Meece, P. Akos & M. Irvin were co-investigators).

Title: Developmental Pathways of Rural African American Early Adolescents
PI: Thomas W. Farmer
Agency: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: R49/CCR419824-01 Period: 09-2001 to 09-2004

This project examined factors that impact the academic, behavioral, and social adjustment from late elementary school through the transition to high school in a sample of impoverished rural African American youth. This work focused on examining possible protective factors (e.g., social networks, extracurricular involvement, parental support, school engagement) that are associated with patterns of positive adjustment (B.D. Cairns, B. Kurtz-Costes, M-C Leung, V. McLoyd, M. Shanahan, C. Walker-Barnes, & H. Xie are co-investigators).

Supplemental Studies Publications

The Rural Definitions Study

Arnold, M. L., Biscoe, B., Farmer, T. W., Robertson, D. L., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). How the government defines rural has implications for education policies and practices (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 010). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assis­tance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.

The AYP in REAP Schools Study

Farmer, T.W., Leung, M-C., Banks, J.B., Schaefer, V., Andrews, B, & Murray, R.A. (2006). Adequate yearly progress in small rural schools and rural low-income schools. Rural Educator, 1-7.

Supplemental Studies Presentations

Dadisman, K., Berry, A., & Gravelle, M. (2009, September). Teacher Recruitment and Retention in Rural School Districts. Invited presentation at Organizations Concerned about Rural Education (OCRE), Washington, DC.